Career Outcomes Taxonomy Definitions

Sector Definition Clarification and Example Duties or Titles
Academia Academic institutions of higher education, including colleges, universities, some medical centers, or free-standing research institutions where training occurs This does not include VA hospitals, but does include teaching, for-profit, and other types of hospitals
Government Any organization operated by federal, state, local or foreign governments Includes VA hospitals
For-Profit Any organization that operates to make a profit, including some industry research  
Nonprofit Individuals who are unemployed, full-time caretaker or parent, on extended medical leave or employed at an organization not included in other options Includes K-12 education
Other Individuals who are unemployed, full-time caretaker or parent, on extended medical leave or employed at an organization not included in other options  
Unknown Unknown  

Career Type Definition Clarification and Example Duties or Titles
Further Training or Education Temporary training position Postdoctoral research, completing medical residency, or pursuing an additional degree
Primarily Research The primary, although not necessarily the only, focus is the conduct or oversight of scientific research Includes academic faculty titles at R1-R3 institutions as identified through Carnegie classifications
Primarily Teaching The primary, although not necessarily the only, focus is education and teaching Includes academic faculty at all other institutions
Science-Related Career that is relevant to the conduct of scientific research, but does not directly conduct or oversee research activities  
Not Related to Science Career that is not directly relevant to the conduct of scientific research  
Unknown Unknown  

Job Function Definition Clarification and Example Duties or Titles
Administration Administrative-intensive roles Faculty affairs, graduate program administrators, human resources, academic admissions, career development offices, grant and contracts management, research development, PhD-level program development
Business development, consulting, and strategic alliances Role that involves the development, execution, management, or analysis of a business Role may include relationship management, refinement of operational efficiency, or fee-based advisory services Management consultant, business development professional, market researcher, investment analyst, venture capitalist
Clinical research management Role that is responsible for the oversight, management, or design of clinical research trials Clinical research project/trials manager or coordinator
Clinical services Role that involves that administration of clinical services or research Genetics counselor, testing specialist, clinical laboratory staff
Data science, analytics, and software engineering Role that may combine programming, analytics, advanced statistics, data communication, and/or software development  
Entrepreneurship Founder, co-founder, CEO or other role that develops, manages, and provides/obtains capital to initiate a business or enterprise This function does not include staff at a start-up business  
Faculty: nontenure track Leading an academic research team and ineligible for tenure Research assistant professor, research associate professor, research professor
Faculty: tenured/tenure track Leading an academic research team and eligible for or already tenured Assistant professor, associate professor, professor
Faculty: tenure track unclear or not applicable Leading an academic research team at an institution where tenure is not granted or tenure status is unknown For those tracking down alumni and binning them into job functions, whether someone is or is not on a tenure track is often not clear and should be sorted here
Group leader (research) Leading a research team in a nonacademic setting Anyone working in industry, non-profit or government who is running a somewhat independent research group This includes those with "Faculty" titles at VA hospitals and other government research institutions
Healthcare provider Role where the primary responsibility is providing healthcare Doctor, nurse, medical resident, veterinarian
Full-time teaching staff Full-time institutionalized teaching position with no research responsibilities Instructor, Lecturer Distinct from "Primarily teaching, faculty," these are people teaching at a single university without a faculty appointment
Intellectual property and law Role that involves the curation, management, implementation or protection of intelligence and creation, including trademarks, copyrights, patents, or trade secrets  Patent agent, patent attorney, technology transfer specialist 
Part-time teaching staff Contingent teaching role that is contracted on a single-semester, short-term, or non-permanent basis with no research responsibilities Instructor, Lecturer Distinct from "Primarily teaching, faculty," these could include people teaching at multiple universities, indicating contingent status
Postdoctoral Temporary mentored training position following completion of doctoral degree  
Regulatory affairs Role that involves controlling or evaluating the safety and efficacy of products in areas including pharmaceuticals, medicines, and devices Institutional regulatory affairs professional, quality control specialist, compliance officer
Research staff or technical director Role that directly involves performing or managing research Research staff, staff scientists, lab/core managers, directors of research facilities, public health analyst, and epidemiologists
Sales and marketing Non-technical role that is related to the sales or marketing of a science-related product or service Medical science liaison, technical sales representative, marketing specialist
Science education and outreach Role that involves K-12 teaching or public outreach at a primary/secondary schools, science museum, scientific society, or similar High school teacher, museum curriculum development, outreach program administrator
Science policy and government affairs Role that involves policy or program development and review, including analysis, advisory, or advocacy Program officer, public affairs or government affairs staff at scientific societies, foundations, government entities, or think tanks
Science writing and communication Role that involves the communication of science-related topics Science, medical, or technical writer, journalist, science editor, science publisher
Technical support and product development Role that requires specialized technical knowledge of a science-related product Technical support specialist, field application specialist, product development scientist or engineer
Other Role that does not require scientific training or involve the direct implementation or communication of science Full-time homemaker, care-taker, chef, food or hospitality services, some types of military service or mission work, or currently unemployed
Completing further education Pursuing additional education that usually results in graduation with conferment of a degree or certificate; this does not include postdoctoral research Pursuing an additional degree in medicine, law, business, or other area
Deceased/retired Deceased or retired  
Unknown Unknown